He made 18 concordats (treaties) with foreign governments. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Some of his decisions were controversial. By the inscrutable design of Divine Providence We were raised to this summit of the Catholic priesthood. Charles E. Coughlin in the United States. Role Title Holding Repository; referencedIn: Houghton Mifflin Company contracts, 1831-1979 (inclusive) 1880-1940 (bulk). Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, where he served for a few months before being elected Pope. The materials included the diaries of Eugenio Pacelli, who became Secretary of State in 1930. XI in Latin, Pio XI in Italian; born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti) is the 259th and reigning Pope of the Roman Catholic Church since February 6, 1922, and by the same way, Head of State of the Papal State. Unfortunately, World War II ruined several of these treaties. He was elected pope at the conclave and took the name Pius … Patriarch of the West. Omissions? His full regular name was Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti. Pope Pius XI in photograph taken on December 31, 1929 by Alberto Felici [Wikipedia] Eighty-three years ago this week, Pope Pius XI issued two encyclicals … Metropolitan Archbishop of the Province of Rome. Visualizza altre idee su Chiesa cattolica, Cattolico, Chiesa. Pius XI WAS Pope in 1939, the year the war broke out. This is the charge often levelled at Pope Pius XII, who was pope from 1939-58. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, who became Pius XI, was born at Desio near Milan, Italy, on May 31, 1857. Pope Cardinal Ratti was elected pope on February 6, 1922; and he chose the name Pope Pius XI. Quick Facts About Pope Pius X. He worked at Ambrosian Library of Milan from 1888 to 1911; and at the Vatican Library from 1911-1914. Subscribe . Achille Ratti was born in Desio, Province of Milan in 1857, the son of the prosperous owner of a silk factory. Ordained in 1879, he became a scholar, a paleographer, and a prefect of the Vatican library. Pius XI, original name Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, (born May 31, 1857, Desio, Lombardy, Austrian Empire [now in Italy]—died February 10, 1939, Rome, Italy), Italian pope from 1922 to 1939, one of the most important modern pontiffs. On February 10, 1939, Pius XI died, at the age of 81. In his 1931 encyclical Quadragesimo Anno, Pope Pius XI introduced a critically important Catholic social teaching concept, one which has maintained currency in political debates today. Pius XI, a student of Hebrew, was responsible for the three major encyclicals against the totalitarian systems that challenged Christian principles: Non abbiamo bisogno (1931; “We Do Not Need to Acquaint You”) against the abuses of fascist Italy; Mit brennender sorge (1937; “With Deep Anxiety”) against Nazi Germany, and Divini redemptoris (1937; “Divine Redeemer”) against the ends of atheistic communism. His tenure as the head of the church began in February 1922 and ended with his death in February 1939. Pius further agreed that a pope would intervene in foreign affairs not as head of a sovereign state but as head of the church. Under his leadership the Vatican challenged the extreme nationalism of Action Français in France and the anti-Semitism of the Rev. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Amen. Unfortunately, he died before his encyclical could be issued, and the draft was shelved by his successor, Pius XII, who decided to pursue a less confrontational course toward the fascist regimes. Pope Pius XI (Latin: Pius PP. Mastai Ferretti chose the name of Pius IX in honour of Pope Pius VII (1800–23), who had encouraged his vocation to the priesthood despite his childhood epilepsy. Primate of Italy. [3], Some of his decisions were controversial. Houghton Library This charge has led to controversy over Pius XII’s canonization cause. Nuncio to Poland in 1919, he was made cardinal and archbishop of Milan in 1921 by Pope Benedict XV, whom he was elected to succeed on February 6, 1922. 1. ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XI ON THE CATHOLIC PRIESTHOOD TO OUR VENERABLE BRETHREN THE PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, BISHOPS, AND OTHER ORDINARIES IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE APOSTOLIC SEE. Most significant was his consecration of the first Chinese bishops, in 1926. Pope Pius XI, birth name Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was the 259th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. During his reign the Lateran Treaty between the Vatican and Italy was signed. Pope Pius XI reigned from 1922, succeeding Pope Benedict XV, and died in 1938, succeeded by Pope Pius XII. Pope Pius XI, who took great offence at the ubiquity of swastikas and fasces which adorned the Eternal City.1 The visit created tension between the Vatican and Fascist Italy, putting in danger what had been a largely harmonious rela-tionship since the crisis over Catholic Action in 1932. In 1922 he had defined Catholic Action as “the participation of the laity in the apostolate of the Church’s hierarchy.”. After Pope Pius XI’s death in 1939, Pacelli became camerlengo, the chamberlain who handles the transition after the death of a pope and the election of another. 1926-03-12 Pope Pius XI names J E van Roey archbishop of Malines Belgium 1926-11-18 Pope Pius XI encyclical On persecution of Church in Mexico 1926-12-20 Pope Pius XI convicts fascist pursuit in Italy 1928-01-06 Pope Pius XI publishes encyclical Mortalium animos (against oecumene) His great scholarly speciality was as an expert pale… Successor of the Prince of the Apostles. Pope Pius XI thus became the first Pontiff in history to address the world on the radio. The Hitler regime routinely violated the treaty, an… A learned humanist, Pius founded research establishments and institutes of higher education, including the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archaeology (1925) and the Pontifical Academy of Science (1936). Pius IX was crowned on 21 June 1846. 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